1. Commencement of Employment .
Upon commencement of employment, the employer is obligated to familiarize you with the work regulations, collective agreement if applicable, as well as the legal regulations related to the work you will be performing, and safety and health regulations at work. The employer is also required to register you as an employee with the social insurance, health insurance, and tax authorities. The health insurance will provide you with a number and an insurance card, which you will use when seeking healthcare services in Slovakia. For certain professions, a pre-employment medical examination may be required, such as those involving night work, work at heights, handling loads, driving, or working in a noisy environment.
The legal capacity of an individual to have rights and obligations as an employee and the capacity to acquire these rights and assume these obligations through legal actions is attained on the day the individual turns 15 years old. However, the employer must not set the starting day of employment before the day the person completes compulsory schooling. An employee can enter into an agreement on material liability at the age of 18.
Contract Most employment contracts in Slovakia are indefinite. Fixed-term employment contracts can be agreed upon for a maximum of two years, and under certain legal conditions, they can be extended or renegotiated within a maximum period of two years, twice.
The employment relationship in Slovakia is established by a written employment contract between the employer and the employee, regulated by the Labor Code. The employer is required to provide the employee with a written copy of the employment contract. The employment contract should cover essential elements such as the nature of the work, a brief description, the place(s) of work, the start date, salary conditions (unless covered by a collective agreement), and, if not included in the contract, other conditions such as payment terms, working hours, vacation entitlement, and notice period. If not covered in the contract, the employer is obligated to provide written information to the employee about their working conditions and terms of employment. The valid employment contract must be concluded no later than on the day the employment relationship begins.
- Types of Employment. The majority of employment contracts in Slovakia are indefinite. Employment for an indefinite period is agreed upon if the duration is not explicitly stated in the employment contract or if the legal conditions for a fixed-term employment contract are not met. A fixed-term employment contract can be agreed upon for a maximum of two years, with the possibility of extension or re-agreement within two years, a maximum of twice.
The employer can agree with the employee on part-time employment, with fewer hours than the regular weekly working hours, specified in the employment contract. Part-time employees are entitled to a proportional salary based on the agreed shorter working hours.
Job sharing occurs when employees in part-time employment mutually arrange their working hours and tasks for a specific job position.
Home Work and Telework.
Home work refers to work performed regularly, either within the specified weekly working hours or its part, from the employee’s home. Telework involves using information technologies regularly, with electronic data transmission. Employees engaging in home work or telework have specific rights and obligations defined by the Labor Code.
Employee Engaged in Ecclesiastical Activities.
Labor regulations for employees of churches and religious societies engaged in ecclesiastical activities do not apply to working hours and collective labor relations.
Conclusion of Employment Contract with a Secondary School or Vocational School Student.
An employer may conclude a future employment contract with a secondary or vocational school student on the day the student turns 15. This contract obliges the employer to hire the student after completing their final exams. The agreement must be made with the consent of the legal representative.
Agreements for Work Outside Employment.
Employers can exceptionally enter into agreements for work outside employment relationships, such as agreements on work performance (up to 350 hours per calendar year), agreements on job activities (up to 10 hours per week), agreements on job activities for seasonal work (up to 520 hours per calendar year for seasonal work specified by the Labor Code, agreed for a maximum of 8 months), and agreements on student part-time work (up to 20 hours per week).
Seasonal work is characterized by its dependence on seasons, regular annual repetition, a duration not exceeding 8 months in a calendar year, and is carried out based on a fixed-term employment contract or part-time employment, work performance agreement, job activity agreement, or, in the case of students, a student part-time work agreement. If a seasonal employment contract is concluded, the agreed period must be clearly specified by either a specific time frame (e.g., exact dates) or the completion of specific work.
- Self-Employment. General conditions for operating a trade by individuals are being 18 years old, having legal capacity, and having a clean record. The Trade Licensing Act differentiates between craft, licensed, and free trades. The specific professional qualification required for a trade must be determined based on the type of trade. More information can be obtained from the Ministry of Interior of the Slovak Republic. After meeting the conditions, job seekers can receive a contribution for self-employment from the Office of Labor, Social Affairs, and Family.
- Employment of EU Citizens in Slovakia. An employer in Slovakia hiring an EU citizen is obligated, according to § 23b paragraph 6 of the Employment Services Act, to inform the relevant labor office, social affairs, and family office about the establishment of an employment relationship using the information card form within seven working days from the commencement of employment. An employer terminating the employment of an EU citizen must inform the office about the termination within seven working days using the same information card form.
In the case of an EU citizen sent to work in Slovakia, the domestic legal or natural person with whom the foreign employer has concluded a contract indicating the secondment of employees to work in Slovakia (informing organization) must inform the office at the place of work. Employers or informing organizations can fulfill this obligation electronically, in person, or by mail. More detailed information is available on the website of the Central Office of Labor, Social Affairs, and Family.
- Registration of EU Citizen’s Residence in Slovakia. Before starting employment, an EU citizen is required to complete registration procedures regarding residence at the relevant police department.
EU citizens entering the territory of the Slovak Republic (SR) need a valid identity card or passport. An EU citizen is obligated to report the beginning and place of their stay at the alien police department (Police Force) within 10 working days from entering the territory of SR. If an EU citizen stays on the territory of SR for more than three months, they are required to apply for residence registration within 30 days after the expiration of the initial three months at the relevant alien police department.
An EU citizen can apply for a residence card called ‘EU Citizen’s Residence Permit,’ valid for 5 years, in person at the relevant alien police department according to their place of residence in SR. An EU citizen has the right to permanent residence if they stay on the territory of SR legitimately and continuously for five years.
- Where Can an EU Citizen Seek Assistance? European Employment Services EURES Ministry of Labor, Social Affairs, and Family Central Office of Labor, Social Affairs, and Family Alien Police Department Ministry of Interior of the Slovak Republic Migration Information Center IOM
- Sanctions for Non-Compliance with Obligations. Failure to submit the information card to the labor office when employing or seconding an EU citizen for work, or not informing the office about the termination of employment or secondment, is considered a violation of employment legislation. Employers, host entities, or informing organizations may face a financial penalty under § 68a of the Act No. 5/2004 Coll. on Employment Services.
An EU citizen commits an offense if they fail to report the start of their stay on the territory of SR to the police department within 10 working days from entry or fail to apply for residence registration within 30 days after staying in SR for more than 3 months, according to the Act on the Residence of Foreigners § 118 paragraph 2.
Explanatory Laws: Act No. 5/2004 Coll. on Employment Services and Amendment of Certain Acts, Labor Code 311/2001 Coll., Act No. 404/2011 Coll. on the Residence of Foreigners and Amendment of Certain Acts Act No. 455/1991 Coll. on Trade Licensing.